Estilo de vida

¿Cuántas horas necesito dormir? Te ayudamos a calcularlo

05/07/2016, a las 08:50

¿No te has preguntado muchas veces si duermes las horas necesarias? ¿Por qué dependiendo de la edad tus hábitos de sueño han cambiado?
Las ocho horas universales de sueño que todos los expertos recomiendan ¿te sirven a ti?

Vamos a intentar dar respuesta a todas estas preguntas.

Dormir está especialmente afectado por el estilo de vida y la salud de cada persona. Por si fuera poco estimulantes como el café y las bebidas energéticas, además de los distintos dispositivos electrónicos que nos rodean interfieren con el ritmo circadiano (el ciclo de vigilia y sueño). Es muy habitual el debate científico sobre las horas necesarias para un óptimo descanso y lo único que parece claro es que no hay unanimidad entre la comunidad científica.

La National Sleep Foundation, un instituto de investigación estadounidense con sede en Arlington (Virginia) ha publicado algunas recomendaciones generales en función de la edad de cada individuo sobre las horas que debemos dormir:

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Recién nacidos (0-3 meses): lo ideal es que duerman entre 14-17 horas cada día, aunque también es aceptable que lo hagan entre 11 y 13 horas.

Bebés (4-11 meses): se recomienda que duerman entre 12-15 horas. También es aceptable que descansen entre 11 y 13 horas, pero nunca más de 16 o 18 horas.

dormido1

 

Niños pequeños (1-2): no es recomendable que duerman menos de 9 horas y más de 15 o 16. Lo que se aconseja es que descansen entre 11 y 14 horas.

Niños en edad preescolar (3-5): entre 10-13 horas sería lo adecuado. Los expertos consideran que menos que 7 y más de 12 no sería aconsejable.

Niños en edad escolar (6-13): lo recomendable sería dormir entre 9 y 11 horas.

Adolescentes (14-17): el rango de sueño aumentó en una hora a 10,08 horas (antes era entre 8,5 y 9,5)

Adultos más jóvenes (18 a 25): entre 7-9 horas al día, y no menos de 6 ni más de 10-11.

Adultos (26-64): lo ideal sería dormir entre 7 y 9 horas..

Adultos mayores (de 65 años): lo saludable es descansar entre 7-8 horas al día.

La higiene del sueño es también muy importante. El sueño saludable es reparador. La investigadora de la Universidad de South Australia Gemma Paech ha creado un método para mejorar nuestros hábitos de descanso, eso sí, teniendo en cuenta que cada persona es un mundo

Así el ciclo del sueño de cada individuo viene influido por la genética. Y encontramos alondras y búhos o personas que necesitan dormir en ciclos más largos y otros más cortos.

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Como hemos apuntado anteriormente, los agentes externos, el cansancio, la actividad física y mental también tienen una gran repercusión en el sueño, a lo que hay que sumar la edad y el estado de salud

Paech propone varios pasos imprescindibles que tienen que seguirse para mejorar la calidad y cantidad de su sueño

Escribir un diario de sueño: en el que apuntemos las horas de ir y levantarse de la cama, así como la calidad del sueño, las veces que se ha despertado y cómo se ha sentido durante el día.

No usar despertador. Algo que en principio puede resultarte complicado es más sencillo de conseguir de lo que crees… Para evitar sustos, un buen momento para empezar es un periodo vacacional.

Estar expuesto al sol durante el día: la luz durante el día y la oscuridad durante la noche, así como otras señales externas, también tienen importancia en el ciclo del sueño.
Si a estas recomendaciones añadimos las propuestas de otros expertos los resultados están garantizados:

Mantener un horario de sueño, incluso los fines de semana.

Practicar una rutina para dormir relajado.

Hacer ejercicio físico a diario.

Asegurar condiciones ideales de temperatura, ruido y luz en el dormitorio.

Dormir en un colchón y una almohadas cómodos.

Tener cuidado con el alcohol y la cafeína.

Apagar los aparatos electrónicos antes de acostarse.

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